The sawing deformation and chip formation process of band sawing machine is the most basic content of metal sawing mechanism. When the saw tooth is perpendicular to sawing material, the sawing thickness along the principle of the blade is not different. When the sawing width is much larger than the sawing thickness, the core part is in the plane stress state. This kind of state is called two-dimensional sawing or orthogonal sawing. The complexity of 3D sawing makes it difficult to understand the sawing quality of the front and rear serrated teeth. Up to now, the research on 3D sawing has not been completed.
Because of the plastic difference of the workpiece material and the different sawing conditions, the different types of chip will be formed, and the influence on the cutting field will be different. From the concept of deformation, there are four types of chip travel patterns:
(1) strip chip. The chips are banded or spirally shaped, and the bottom layer that is exposed to the serrated front is smooth and has a hairy appearance on the back. Some plastic materials (such as low-carbon steel, copper, aluminum, etc.) are sawed at higher cutting speed, lower cutting thickness and feed speed, and these chips are formed when the front angle of the saw tooth is larger. At this time, the sawing process is stable and the sawing force fluctuation is small. Because the sawing of band saw machine is continuous, the chip often appears long filament or spiral after cutting, so it is necessary to use the required debris clearing to prepare the debris of the band saw blade.
(2)nodular chip. The chip has a large zigzag shape on the back and a non penetrating crack on the bottom. When some medium hardness steel is sawed, the sawing speed is low, the sawing thickness is large, and the front angle of the saw tooth is small. Because of the large shear slip, part of the steel reaches the fracture strength of the material.
(3) unit chip. On the shear plane of nodular chip, when the shear stress exceeds the strength limit of the material, the whole element will be cut off, forming a trapezoidal chip.
(4) crumble chips. When sawing brittle materials such as cast iron and bronze, because the plasticity of the material is very small and the tensile strength is low, the inner layer of the saw tooth cutting is near the saw tooth cutting edge and some metals in front of the saw tooth cutting edge are brittle fracture under the tensile stress state without relatively plastic deformation. Constitute the chip chip of the police. The harder and brittle the workpiece material is, the larger the feed rate is, the easier the chip will be generated. At this time, it is easy to generate vibration, and the sawing force of band sawing machine fluctuates greatly.
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